B.C. In 1100, Phoenicians started to establish the first settlements in the territory of Spain. The Celts and Greeks followed them. Spain later came under the rule of the Carthaginians. In 202 BC, the Romans expelled the Carthaginians from the Iberian Peninsula. From that date on, the Roman Empire had united Spain and had Christianity accepted there.
Muslims from Africa in 711 dominated Spain, except for a few districts in the north from the 8th century to the 10th century, where they established their Andalusia. Taking advantage of the internal turmoil of this country in the 11th century, Christians began to regain the peninsula starting from the north. In 1492, the last castle of Muslims, the Kingdom of Granada, was destroyed. In the same year, Kristof Kolomb went on his famous trip where he discovered America with the financial support of the Spanish ruler. This journey allowed Spain to establish one of the largest colonial empires in the world. Following the defeat of Spanish Armada to the British navy in 1588, the throne and religion quarrels eventually began to collapse, with Spain weakening. He lost Portugal in 1640, and some territory in Europe and Gibraltar in 1714. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, all the colonies of the Spanish in America gained their independence.
In World War I, Spain remained neutral despite all invitations, but was greatly affected by the war. After the leftists were successful in the elections held in 1936, civil war broke out in the country. With the end of the civil war in 1939, Franco became president. II. With the support of the army in Spain, which did not participate in World War II, Franco also maintained its place after the war. After the death of Franco in 1975, the parliament, which served as a constitutional institution called Constituent Cortes in the elections held in 1977, convened to amend the constitution and issued the 1978 constitution. As a result, Spain is divided into 17 autonomous states and 2 autonomous cities.